Service für Autoren 23.09.2013

Instructions for authors and editors of veterinary journals

General information on data presentation

  • Figures: Please send your electronic figure files separately (not inserted in the text). They should be at least 300 dpi (halftone) or1200 dpi (line) sent as high-definition figure files in *.TIF, *.JPG or *.EPS format, if possible on a CD-ROM. In addition, please send original data (Word, Excel, Powerpoint) for charts, graphs etc. The definition of figures taken from the internet is too low and therefore such figures cannot be used.
  • Text: Please send your texts ready for setting as *.DOC files. The text file should contain as little formatting as possible. The following should be avoided: syllable division, unnecessary tabulation or empty spaces.
  • Tables should be made with the table function in Word or with Excel.


1. General information

  • The manuscript should be in formal British English.
  • 1.5 line spacing should be used.
  • Automatic hyphenation should not be used in the manuscript (Word).
  • The return key should only be used at the end of a paragraph, not at the end of a line.
  • Accentuation in the text is to be done by using a bold typeface, not by underlining or italics.
  • Do not number the subsection titles.
  • In journalistic texts, the abbreviations and signs are to be written as words (17 percent, 15 million Euros), whereas symbols should be used (17 %) in specialist texts.

2. Title

  • The work place of the authors is given without naming the head of the department or administration (with more than one author use numbered footnotes to show who is working where). Example: Klinik für Kleintiere der Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover¹, Klinik und Poliklinik für kleine Haustiere der Freien Universität Berlin²
  • The title of the publication is given in English and German.
  • Names of the authors are written one after the other without "and“. Example: Michael Fehr¹, Christina Indendaay²
  • Summary and identical “Zusammenfassung” in German, each containing a maximum of 250 words.
  • Keywords/Schlüsselwörter (three to five) in English and German; terms which are part of the title should not be repeated.

3. Manuscript

  • Oiginal papers: summary in English and German, introduction, material and methods, results, discussion, references
  • Case reports: Should cover a maximum of three cases: introduction, description of the case/the cases, discussion, references

4. Use of tables and figures

  • Both figures and tables should be consecutively numbered, controlled for their completeness and the enumeration of the legends should be proofread.
  • There should be a reference in the text for each and every table and figure: (Fig. 1.), (Table 1.) or …as can be seen in Figure 1 …“, „…it is shown in Table 1 how…“· Please cite the source of all illustrations taken from other works at the end of the legend or in the list of figures. The copyright permission from the rights holder must be sent with the illustration as we can only publish such illustrations when a written permission to reprint is presented.
  • Please make sure that the figures are correctly labelled and that the leader lines (where necessary) have been placed correctly.
  • All markings used in the figures should be explained in the legend.
  • The figure legends are placed under the figure and finish with a full stop. The word "figure" is written in capital letters.
    Example: FIGURE 8: Cornea of a Chinchilla with superficial keratitis.
  • If there is more than one figure for a particular theme, then they should be numbered as follows: FIGURE 6A, FIGURE 6B, etc.
  • The titles for tables do not have a full stop at the end. The word "table" is written in capital letters.
    Example: TABLE 1: Results after the parasitological investigation for fleas in 15 cats
  • The legends for the figures and the tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript (after the references).

5. Notes on writing

M-dash (–) and hyphen (-)

  • An m-dash (key combination: ctrl + minus) is used in the sense of "until“ without any spaces being written either before or after it, even with numbers: 3–5 ml, pages 228–239, 10–12 hours.
    (It is also used for the page references in the reference list.)
  • A hyphen is used in hyphenated terms: Hermann-Löns-Straße, omega-3 fatty acids, 1-ml syringe.

Numbers and numerals

  • Numbers between one and twelve should be written as words within the text if they are not followed by units (e. g. three dogs). From the number 13 onwards, the numbers are written as digits not as words (e. g. 15 cats). Note: numbers written at the start of a sentence are always written as words.
  • Numbers written in connection with units are always written as digits (e. g. 1–7 ml, 25–30 ml, 5.5 ml)
  • Numbers with more than four digits should be written in groups of three with a hard or non-breaking space (key combination: ctrl + shift + space) between each group (e. g. 10 129 visitors, 245 230 t ; however, 4580 exhibits)
  • Date: The month should be written as a word with a comma between the month and year; e. g. 8 August, 2008. If the date has to be written in digits (for example in a table) then it should be written as two-digit numbers separated by full stops but without a space, e. g. 01.06.2006. The sequence is
  • Times: These are written as hours and minutes separated by a colon: 08:30. The 24-hour clock system should be used.
  • Telephone numbers are written without parentheses. A space is written between the dialling codes for the network operator, local area code and telephone number of the subscriber. The direct dialling-in numbers are connected by a hyphen:
    National telephone numbers: Tel. 0351 1221 295-250, Fax 0351 1221 295-250
    International telephone numbers: Tel. +49 351 1221295-250, Fax +49 351 1221295-250
  • Post office box numbers are written in groups of two – starting from the final digit – each separated by a hard space: P.O. 14 23, P.O. 3 56
  • Bank identifier codes are written in two groups of three followed by a group of two (starting from the left): Bank code 250 700 45; account numbers are written in groups of three starting from the right: Account no. 8 754 763
  • Footnotes are superscripted with numbers in Arabic numerals. The digits are positioned directly after the term which they are describing(example: Austria¹, Switzerland²) without a space or a parenthesis. The explanations are also written without parentheses and are written underneath each other. They finish with a full stop:
    ¹Animal Protection Laws, Art. 32.
    ²Swiss Constitutional Law.

Abbreviations, monetary units, arithmetic operators and special signs

  • Abbreviations are always written with a hard space (key combination: crtl + shift + space) separating the individual letters: i. e., e. g., i. v., p. o., s. c., 10 ml
  • Arithmetic operators are written with a hard space directly before them: 4 + 2 = 6 (also in tables), n = 3n – x, ratio 1 : 200. When used as an algebraic sign, the + and – signs are not used with a space: +12, –45 (the minus sign is an m-dash).
  • A hard space is also used to separate the paragraph sign and its number: § 34, §§ 36 to 44.
  • There is no space before the percent sign: 10%.
  • Slashes are used without spaces: 60 km/h, the turn of the year 2001/2002.
  • With temperatures and geometric angles, there is no space between the number and the degree sign; e. g., 38ºC, –4ºC, an angle of 30º

Pharmaceuticals, equipment, products·

  • Pharmaceuticals: active ingredient (if necessary dosage; trade name® , company with company title, country code (WIPO-standard two-letter codes) of the company's head office);
    example: midazolam (0.3 mg/kg BW i. m.; Dormicum® , Roche Pharma AG, DE)
  • Products or equipment: name (manufacturer, company with company title, country code (WIPO-standard two-letter codes) of the company's head office);
    example: Softlaser (2 J/cm2 ; 30 mW Softlaser; Behounek Medizintechnik KG, AT)
  • Registered trade marks are labeled ®

Units, abbreviations and nomenclature

  • All specifications should be given according to the Sl System.
  • The concentration of chemical solutions should be given in mol/l. All other concentrations should be given as volume % or weight %.
  • The abbreviations of chemical, biological, medical or other specialist terminology may only be used if they are internationally accepted.
  • The explanation of the abbreviation must be written in parentheses directly after the first use of the abbreviation in the text.
  • All medical, chemical, biological or other terms used should be according to the latest international nomenclature recommendations.
  • Enzyme units are written in IU (International Units) according to the reference book "Enzyme Nomenclature" (Elsevier Publishing Co., 1965).
  • The names of bacteria or their description should be in accordance with the latest version of "Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology" (The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore).
  • The names of viruses should be according to the classification and recommendations of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).
  • The names of microorganisms and zoological names should be written in italics.
    Example: Staphylococcus aureus. Genera and families should not be written in italics.

6. Literature
References in the text are written in parentheses and are given as name and year of the publication. They should be written in chronological order, then in alphabetical order, in
parentheses; for example:
(Albrecht, 1983; Meyer, 1983; Müller and Frank, 1985; Schmitz et al., 1988).
If the author's name is given in the text directly, then the year of publication is to be written in parentheses; e. g.
……. according to Smith (2007) …….
If there are more than two authors, then the first is named and the others are summarised under "et al.".
All the sources cited in the text should be in the reference list and vice versa. N. B.: please cross-check your references and citations carefully.

The reference list is organised according to the first letter of the surname of the first author.
The authors' names and the year of publication are written in bold face.
The title of the journal is abbreviated according to the official abbreviations given in Medline (see The following citation methods must be used:

Journal articles [The journal name should be abbreviated without any full stops ( example: Vet Med); the band numbers should not be emphasised]
Schalch B, Bader L, Schau HP, Bergmann R, Rometsch A, Maydl G, Keßler S (2003):
Molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens from a food-borne disease outbreak in a nursing home: ribotyping versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 892-895.

Book chapter
Fredriksson-Ahomaa M (2007): Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In: Simjee S (ed.), Foodborne disease. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 79-113.

Rood JI, McClane BA, Songer JG, Titball RW (1997): The clostridia: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.

Unnerstad H (2001): Listeria monocytogenes – strain diversity demonstrated by genotyping.
Uppsala, Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, diss.

Conference proceedings
Walton RS, Ewards MR (1996): Video-assisted thoracoscopy in the dog. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Veterinary Medical Forum, San Antonio Texas 1996, 746.

7. Address of corresponding author at the end of the article

Address of corresponding author:
Prof. Dr. Lutz Meyer
Klinik für kleine Haustiere
Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover
Bischofsholer Damm 15
30173 Hannover

Special feature of English articles:
Address of corresponding author:
The country should be added after the town on a new line.